开始在飞机制造也许你想知道你是否应该建立一个飞机。或者,也许你已 决定建造,但不知道从何处开始。也许你已经开始建立,然后 停止由于某种原因。有许多问题,经常出现有关飞机 建设一般。为什么要建立一个飞机?什么是可建造?什么技能,我需要?什么类型的飞机,我应该建立?具体来说,什么是需要在这个过程中的建设 飞机?我该如何克服这些障碍可能会妨碍我完成这个项目?这个 讨论和随后的条款将解决这些问题和其他常见问题,新的建设者常问。自订飞机建设的一个主要形式的娱乐飞行。当然,许多人 已成功地建造自己的飞机。超过20 000飞机目前正在注册为 业余建。很多人都建立一个以上的飞机。几乎任何人的名义技能 并愿意作出的承诺能够做到这一点。请注意我所提到的“承诺” 。它 重要的是要认识到,建设自己的飞机确实需要一个承诺 个人的部分,是对家庭。我将讨论什么是需要更新。建设飞机 为自己的享受当然是什么新鲜事。我们可以认为,莱特兄弟被 也许其中的第一个“房屋。 ” 在1947年首次允许个人建立自己的飞机,并有认证的飞行。 1953年,保Poberezny成立地产代理监管局。这开始了一项运动,已经历 通过本时间。许多人开始享受实际建设的飞机,然后飞往他们。 相信我,在初期是真正的飞机建设。工具包,只是需要组装 尚未制定。在1970和1980年代的一些新的设计应运而生。风俗 飞机制造开始变得越来越受欢迎。当然,产品责任问题 有助于运动。营销工具包的设计或不履行相同的法律责任 生产和销售已完成的飞机。我想简要地表达我的意见,使用 单词“ homebuilt 。 ”对我来说,文字的内涵进行了一定的联想了一个愿景 飞机可能不妥善建造。改为“实验”也没有激励 质量的信心。我们认为,实验飞机作为一个只有查克耶格尔应该飞。 这些话已被使用多年,但我更喜欢使用“定制” 。我们的飞机 正在讨论已经发展到通过几年优质,安全的飞机,在许多情况下 导致的民航界在技术领域。这就是为什么你会看到我使用的术语“自定义基础。 ”为什么要建立一个飞机?这是一个很好的问题。为什么就不能购买飞机,然后在我的方式享受飞行。那个 当然可能是最好的解决方案,许多人。决定建造飞机应 只是在经过仔细考虑的许多因素。这不是一个决定掉以轻心。它要求 明确承诺的时间,金钱和努力。这亦是应享有。 如果您的目标仅仅是为了有一个飞机,您可能需要考虑的购买选择权。但是,如果你认为你可以享受建设然后飞行,采取一切手段继续阅读。我想引用评论 玛丽提出琼斯在监管局出版Aerocrafter 。 “决定建立一个飞机不是一个 要进入掉以轻心。如果你的承诺,建设-这是一个承诺-你的生活会 更改。这就是为什么它如此重要的未来的建设者,全面,客观地评价 他们的理由建设;他们预计的收益作出;和宗旨飞机将。Getting Started In Aircraft BuildingSport Aviation - 10/99By Ron AlexanderPerhaps you are wondering whether or not you should build an airplane. Or maybe you have madethe decision to build but do not know where to begin. Perhaps you have started to build and thenstopped for one reason or another. There are many questions that often arise pertaining to aircraftbuilding in general. Why build an airplane? What is available to construct? What skills do I need?What type of airplane should I build? Specifically, what is required in this process of constructing anairplane? How do I overcome the obstacles that may prevent me from completing the project? Thisdiscussion and subsequent articles will address these and other common questions that new buildersoften ask.Custom aircraft building is one of the primary forms of recreational flying. Certainly, many peoplehave successfully built their own aircraft. Over 20,000 aircraft are currently registered asamateur-built. Many people have built more than one airplane. Virtually any person with nominal skillsand the willingness to make the commitment can do it. Notice I mentioned the word "commitment." Itis important to understand that building your own airplane does require a commitment on theinpidual's part and on the part of the family. I will discuss what is required later. Building an airplanefor your own enjoyment is certainly nothing new. We can consider that the Wright brothers wereprobably amongst the first "homebuilders."In 1947 inpiduals were first allowed to build their own airplane and have it certificated for flight by thegovernment. In 1953, Paul Poberezny founded the EAA. This began a movement that has enduredthrough the present time. Many people began to enjoy actually building aircraft and then flying them.Believe me, in the early days it was truly aircraft building. Kits that simply needed to be assembledhad not been developed. During the 1970's and 1980's several new designs came into being. Customaircraft building started to become more and more popular. Of course, product liability issuescontributed to the movement. Marketing a design or kit does not carry the same legal responsibility asmanufacturing and selling a completed airplane. I want to briefly express my opinion on using theword "homebuilt." To me that word carries a certain connotation that conjures up a vision of anairplane that might not be properly constructed. The word "experimental" also does not inspireconfidence in quality. We think of an experimental aircraft as one only Chuck Yeager should fly.These words have been used for years, but I prefer to use the words "custom-built." The aircraft weare discussing have evolved through the years into high quality, safe aircraft that in many instanceshave led the aviation community in the area of technology. That is why you will see me use the term"custom built."Why Build An Airplane?This is a good question. Why not simply purchase an airplane and go on my way to enjoy flying. Thatcertainly may be the best solution for many people. The decision to build an airplane should be madeonly after careful consideration of many factors. It is not a decision to be taken lightly. It requires adefinite commitment of time, money and plain hard work. It is also something that should be enjoyed.If your goal is simply to have an airplane, you may want to consider the purchase option. However, ifyou think you may enjoy building and then flying, by all means read on. I want to quote a commentmade by Mary Jones in the EAA publication Aerocrafter. "The decision to build an aircraft is not oneto be entered into lightly. If you make the commitment to build - and it is a commitment - your life willchange. That's why it's so important for prospective builders to thoroughly and objectively assesstheir reasons for building; the gains they expect to make; and the purpose the aircraft will serve." Wellsaid.Building your own airplane is a very satisfying and rewarding experience. There is something veryspecial in knowing that you have constructed the airplane you are flying. It is very satisfying to fly yourcustom built airplane to an airshow and proudly display it. There are many valid reasons that may bepresented to justify building your own airplane. (By the way, I have been trying to justify owning anairplane for years. Forget about doing that. It is very frustrating.) Let's list some of the reasons tobuild.? You can save money building your own airplane.? Building lets you own a more sophisticated airplane than you might not be able to otherwiseafford.? For many people aircraft building is simply a hobby they enjoy doing.? You will better understand the mechanical aspects of your airplane if you built it. This hasobvious safety benefits.? You can maintain a custom built airplane without an A&P license. No more expensivemaintenance bills. This includes doing your own annual inspection (condition inspection).? You can acquire a particular type of design that is probably not available as a productionairplane.? Aircraft building can (and should be) a family project.? You become a member of an elite group of inpiduals who share common goals andinterests.Do you need any more convincing?What Is Available To Build?This is where the decision becomes difficult and often confusing. There are many aircraft designs andkits available for you to build (over 700 as a matter of fact). Everything from an ultralight to asophisticated cross country airplane. You can create your own design and build it. You can buy a setof plans and build. Another option is to buy a set of plans along with a material kit for the airplane. Andof course, the most popular option today - purchase a kit aircraft. When you purchase a kit airplaneyou are usually trading dollars for time. You will be sent parts and pieces that need to be assembledthus simplifying the process. Building from a set of plans requires more time, less money.A custom built aircraft requires a pilot license to fly in addition to an airworthiness certificate for theairplane. An ultralight does not require a pilot's license or an airworthiness certificate - generallyspeaking. Basically, there are five different types of materials used in building amateur-built airplanes.They are sheet metal, wood, steel tubing, fabric, and composite materials. The majority of custombuilt aircraft require acombination of two or more of these materials. Several designs using sheetmetal only are available and are popular. A large number of tube and fabric airplanes are being builtalong with the increasingly more popular composite aircraft. Composite aircraft are comprised of twoor more basic materials, such as foam and fiberglass, that are combined to make a very strongstructure. The type of aircraft that you choose is largely one of personal preference. You may havesheet metal experience that will enable you to feel more comfortable building that type of airplane.You may desire a fast, cross-country airplane that might lend itself best to a composite design. Ihighly recommend that you purchase the EAA's Aerocrafter. This annually updated publication listsover 700 aircraft that you can build and fly. It provides information on each aircraft that includescompany information, statistics on each airplane, how many have been sold, how many are flying, etc.It is an excellent resource guide for anyone interested in building an airplane. It may be obtainedthrough the EAA by calling 800/557-2376 or online at www.aerocrafter.com.What Is Required To Build An Airplane?RegulationsIt is interesting to note that few FAA regulations exist pertaining to aircraft building. Oneprimary FAR defines an amateur-built aircraft. That regulation is FAR 21.191(g) and it is the heart ofall regulations for the builder of an airplane. This regulation states the following: "Operatingamateur-built aircraft. Operating an aircraft the major portion of which has been fabricated andassembled by persons who undertook the project solely for their own education or recreation." Thisregulation is the basis of custom aircraft building. Notice that one or more persons may build theairplane but they must build it only for their own enjoyment or education. This is the primary restrictionplaced upon the custom builder. Notice it states you must build the major portion of the aircraft. Thatsimply means you must build, assemble or fabricate 51% or more of the aircraft.The FAA maintains a Listing of Eligible kits. To be placed on this listing, the kit manufacturer mustcomplete a checklist regarding the construction of each component part of the airplane. The checklistconsists of three columns: one defining the part and the other two stating who builds the part, eitherthe kit manufacturer or the amateur builder. In completing the checklist the kit manufacturer musthave 49% or fewer of the check marks to ensure compliance with the major portion rule. If this is thecase, the aircraft is then included on the Listing of Eligible kits. Being placed on this list does notconstitute an endorsement by the FAA regarding the aircraft itself. It simply means it meets thecriteria established in the checklist. When you are considering a particular type of aircraft, be sure it isincluded on this list. Regarding materials that you may use to construct your own airplane . . . the FAAdoes not restrict you. You can use anything you like. Now, let's examine that statement. Even thoughyou can legally use any part, you must use discretion and good judgment. We are talking safety. Touse unproven and untested parts or materials is inviting disaster. The FAA inspector who issues yourairworthiness certificate will also want to be sure that you have used quality materials.You will want to obtain a copy of Advisory Circular 20-27D. The information contained within thiscircular pertains to the building of an aircraft. You can get a copy through your local FAA district officeor online at www.safetydata.com. Several websites either have this circular on their site or have a linkto another site that contains it. Your local FAA office should have available and send you a completepackage on aircraft building. It will include all pertinent Advisory Circulars along with the Listing ofEligible Kits.Workshop Space and ToolsIf you have a garage you have enough space to build an airplane. A two-car garage is preferable.(Yes, you will have to sacrifice the well-being of your car.) You will need space for tools, materials,component parts and parts as they are completed. You need a place to work including a couple ofworkbenches. The exact dimensions needed vary according to the type of airplane you are building.The requirements for controlling temperature, noise, etc. also vary. Don't be discouraged frombuilding your own airplane just because you do not have the perfect shop. Many people have built in aone-car garage storing parts inside the house, in an attic or wherever. (You can see that you will needyour family's support.) The most important comment I will make about your workshop is to have itclose to home. If it is located in your home you will be much more inclined to work on the project whenyou arrive home from work. This will also allow your family to more easily participate in the buildingprocess. In their respective manuals, the designer or kit manufacturer will usually present the exactlayout of the workshop space needed.Concerning tools, again don't base the decision to build on lack of tools. Tools required varyconsiderably depending upon the type of construction. Most people have the basic tools needed. Ifnot, they can be purchased at a reasonable cost. Sheet metal construction will require the highestinvestment in tools. That still does not involve a lot of money. You can buy most of the tools you willneed to build a sheet metal airplane for $1,000-$1,500. Of course, you can spend a lot more if youdesire.When you purchase tools for your project remember that they are a lifetime investment. You may alsobe required to build certain jigs in which to assemble parts. Seldom do the jigs require a largefinancial investment. The bottom line with tools - you need the basics but nothing elaborate. Granted,the more tools you have the easier the job, but you do not have to invest large sums of money toaccomplish the building task.Skills NeededAgain, this varies depending upon the type of construction involved in building your airplane. I want toemphasize that you do not need to be an accomplished craftsman to build your own airplane. Most ofthe skills you will need can be acquired and developed. Knowledge of the basics often can beobtained through the assembly manual provided with the aircraft in addition to books and videos.Working with others who have successfully completed a project is another valuable resource. TheEAA has a Technical Counselor Program wherein knowledgeable builders offer their assistance andguidance. Attending one of the EAA/SportAir workshops will provide you with "hands-on" experiencein the type of construction that you select.It has been my experience that the most important ingredient for the new builder is confidence. Alarge number of people decide against building their own airplane because they lack a confidencelevel regarding their inpidual building skills and technical knowledge. Let me encourage you not tolet this stop you. There are many resources available to the fledgling builder. I will discuss these indetail later. Look around at people who have successfully built an airplane. Do they possess anyunusual talents or skills? They usually had to develop them just as you will. Gain the basic technicalknowledge needed and then develop your skills through practice. You will start your project with asmall part and if you make a mistake on it - so what? Start over. I can assure you this may happen.However, as you practice and gain more knowledge you will in turn gain more confidence and makefewer mistakes. If you are willing to learn and devote some time to practice you can learn the skillsneeded for aircraft building.TimeThis is certainly an emotional issue. How long will it take to build your airplane? I wish I could provideyou with a simple answer but I can't. The time issue has too many variables. I can say this - it willprobably take you more time than you think to complete the airplane. You should be mentallyprepared for this. Of course, a plans built airplane will certainly take more time to build than a kitaircraft. A "quick-build" kit will require less time to build than a regular kit.Many factors enter in to the amount of time required to build an airplane. To begin with, you will makemistakes and that will add to your time. You may have to drive to the workshop every time you want todo something on the project. What kind of job do you have? Do you work 8 to 5 every day or do youhave some "chunks" of time you can spend building? What kind of weather do you have where youlive? Maybe you can only work on the airplane during certain times of the year. How clear andconcise are the plans supplied to you? Do you get good builder assistance from the designer ormanufacturer? Is your family actively involved or do they resent the time you spend on the project?As you can see, there is no easy way to accurately forecast the time required. The kit manufacturerwill provide you with an estimate based upon somewhat ideal conditions. They can only estimatebased upon their experience and the experience of other builders. If you want a good estimate, talk toother people who have built the same type of airplane you are considering. After a sampling of a fewpeople you can more accurately predict the time. Average building times for most kit aircraft vary fromabout 800 hours to 2,000 hours. For a plans built you are looking at 3,000+ hours, depending uponthe type of airplane.Again, this should not be a deterrent to your decision. Remember I mentioned earlier that you shouldenjoy the building process. So what if it takes longer than you thought. You are developing skills,involving the family and having a good time while you build.One of the most important things to remember is to break the project down into small pieces. If youtend to look at the overall project and its completion, you are more likely to become discouraged.Build one piece at a time. Concentrate on a tail surface, a wing, etc. Don't set unrealistic goals foryourself. Many a project sits idle today because the builder became discouraged by thinking theaircraft should have been completed in less time. Will you become discouraged while building?Probably. What have you ever accomplished in your life that was worthwhile where you did notexperience discouragement?Finances RequiredThis issue is much easier to predict than the time element. Most of the time you will have a good ideaas to how much the airplane will cost when complete. Numbers are available. You can talk to otherbuilders. You can sit down and plan this out. However, a few things are worthy of mention. When youpurchase the materials or a complete kit, you will incur a number of additional expenses. A few ofthem to consider are: (1) shipping cost for the kit, (2) engine, (3) propeller, (4) avionics, (5) paint and(6) upholstery. There may be other items that you will have to purchase depending upon what isincluded in the kit cost.If you are building a plans built airplane, you will be able to purchase materials on an as-needed basis.This will help your cash flow. Several kit manufacturers also allow you to buy certain portions of theairplane inpidually. You can often buy a tail kit, wing kit, fuselage kit, etc. each separately. That toowill help cash problems. Financing is available for purchasing a custom built airplane. There are anumber of companies that will loan money for this purpose. Some of the kit manufacturers will helparrange financing. How much will it cost? Of course, this depends upon the type of airplane you build.You can spend anywhere from $5,000 or less to over $300,000. The average kit price will usually runbetween $15,000 and $25,000. After purchasing engine, propeller, etc. you will have anywhere from$25,000 to$50,000 on an average. Remember that this will vary considerably one way or the other from one kitto another. As I mentioned earlier, a plans built airplane will cost less to build than a kit. With a plansbuilt you are actually constructing each part and then assembling the airplane. With most kits you willbe buying pre-made parts and then assembling them. The bottom line - there is a price range foralmost every person interested in custom building.In subsequent issues I will answer additional questions that will assist you in getting started on yourbuilding project. Such things as how to involve your family, problems and obstacles, FAA inspectionsand information on how to actually make the decision will be discussed.